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Official Sesquicentennial K-12 Education Project
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Pioneer 1848-1868 Companies

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1867: Emigration and Other Events

A warm January ushered in the year of 1867, precluding a season that would be somewhat different from any since the arrival of the Pioneer Company in 1847. It was the first year since the introduction of the Perpetual Emigrating Fund that teams and wagons did not go back to the railroad terminus to meet the Saints and escort them to Utah. Thus, immigration was not only very small, but considerably hampered. Only one chartered ship, the Manhattan, with 480 Saints under the direction of returning missionary Archibald N. Hill, made the journey. And one organized company of 500 under Leonard G. Rice left North Platte on August 8th, arriving in the Valley in October. One other ship, the Hudson, with 20 Saints aboard, sailed independently, arriving on June 19th.

While the lack of organization did not prevent many independent groups from making their way across the plains, it did open the way for various kinds of depredations to occur which had heretofore been more or less preventable. The many journals which have been studied in preparing this chapter have recorded incidents of misappropriation of funds paid by the Saints for their provisions and transportation. The Indians caused serious difficulties for the travelers as well as for the long merchant trains that brought goods to the colonizers of the west. These unusual problems provided one benefit for the incoming Saints, however; the Mormon men were able to procure employment driving freight wagons.

The small immigration, and the hardships suffered by those who did come, impressed the Church authorities with the necessity for renewing their help for future immigrants, and during the following year, 1868, nearly $100,000 was raised for this purpose.

Freighted Goods, Large Merchant Trains
Many of the journals of pioneers of 1867 tell of the large merchant trains that made their way across the plains during the summer. Not only did these traveling department stores become objects of interest to the emigrating Saints, in many cases they provided added protection for the small independent groups who joined up with them.

Home Industry
On January 9, 1867, a call was made by the First Presidency for capital to establish domestic manufacturing in the Great Basin:

"...Cease paying the exhorbitant prices demanded by disinterested persons and our enemies for all imported articles, and hundreds of thousands of dollars may be saved annually by the Saints, and the revenue which has heretofore enriched those who have no interests with us, may be devoted to the building up of the Kingdom of God which we, as Saints of the Most High, have covenanted before heaven to do all in our power to accomplish, and woe unto this people if they violate those covenants."
-Brigham Young, Heber C. Kimball, Daniel H. Wells

The University of the State of Deseret
The University of the State of Deseret. The University, or parent school, opened its first term at the home of John Pack in the Seventeenth Ward. Dr. Cyrus Collins, A.M., en route to California and the gold fields, taught the first organized class, some forty men, and lectured on history, literature and philosophy. Despite such an auspicious beginning the first tenure of the University was destined to be shortlived. Its obstacles and handicaps were insurmountable. There was a greater need for elementary schools. The University soon found itself in financial straits; Congress consistently refused to extend any aid, private donations were small and the legislative appropriations very inadequate. Thus, the University of Deseret regretfully closed its doors in 1852 and for fifteen years the institution had but a nominal existence.

In the fall of 1867 D. O. Calder reopened the University as a commercial college. Later, Calder resigned and Dr. John R. Park was elected president. Under the genius and inspirational guidance of this remarkable man the University was at once launched upon its subsequent dignified and high standard professional career. The curriculum was completely revised. Five courses were announced in the first published catalogue, namely: Commercial, Normal, Preparatory, Scientific and Classical. One hundred ninety students were enrolled during this first year of Dr. Park's administration.

St. Mark's Academy
St. Mark's Academy. Soon after the Rt. Rev. Daniel Sylvester Turtle arrived in Great Salt Lake City as missionary bishop of the mountain territory for the Protestant Episcopal Church, he held the first local Episcopal services in Independence Hall on July 7, 1867, speaking to a congregation of more than one hundred. Bishop Tuttle was so successful in his work that in four years his organization was strong enough to support the erection of a building. Bishop Tuttle summarizes the school history as follows:

For the first year we were in the old bowling alley which was situated where the Walker House now stands. For the second year we occupied Independence Hall. Now, for this coming year, we rented Groesbeck's old store on Main Street for $40 a month. Here, overflowing into two other old stores contiguous, St. Mark's school was housed, until we built the new schoolhouse opposite the City Hall in 1872.... I entered St. Mark's school as headmaster and business manager. I opened it every morning and taught from 9 a.m. to twelve, every day. Mr. Haskins taught for two hours in the afternoon. The Grammar School of St. Mark's Associate Mission, the first Gentile school in Utah, was opened in July 1867 by Rev. Thomas W. Haskins and Miss Foote, sister of the minister, with sixteen scholars.... A fixed rate of tuition is charged, but all unable to pay are received as free pupils, of whom there are sixty in the school. This is the nearest approach to a free school at present in Utah.

Indian Troubles
In the spring of 1867 it became apparent to the settlers in Sanpete, Sevier and Piute counties that another year of trouble had begun. In March, Orson Hyde suggested that they try to obtain aid from the government as he had heard many rumors concerning Indian depredations that were to be committed in the spring, and that "when the snow is gone the Indians are going to get mad, east, west, north and south." Elder Hyde suggested that the Indian superintendent attempt to change the plans of the Indians, or with the help of the United States troops capture the hostile red men.

On March 19th, an attack was made upon Glenwood, and the pioneer blacksmith, Merrit Staley, was killed and much of the livestock taken. At about the same time, Jens Peter Petersen and wife, and a neighbor girl, Mary Smith, were murdered. Before year's end, seven others would be dead of Indian wounds, namely: Louis Lund, Major Vance, Heber Christian Houtz, James Meek, Martin Andrew Johnson (Johanson), John Hay and William George Potter.

June 19. On last Friday the Indians made a raid on Beaver and succeeded in running off some stock, but did no further injury.

August 21. On Tuesday and Wednesday, telegrams were received from Generals Burton and Pace in Sanpete, stating that the Indians had made a descent on Springtown herd ground and hayfield. One man named James Meek was killed; another named Andrew Johnson was dangerously wounded, and is since reported dead; and another named William Blain was shot in the ear. Fifty men from Mount Pleasant and a number from Fort Ephraim started immediately in pursuit of the Indians who had driven off some stock. After a close pursuit the savages were compelled to kill eleven horses and leave some behind, getting off with a number of colts. Several Indians were recieved to be killed.

In an article published June 12, 1867, The Deseret News regretfully reported the killings and depredations, but admitted that much of the trouble was attributable to the white man:

"During the past year our settlements in Sanpete, Sevier, Piute and Kane counties have suffered considerably from marauding Indians. These bands have been principally composed of renegade Indians from the neighboring tribes, who have been drawn together by the hope of plunder. The loss of life and stock through their depredations has been considerable. The United States troops encamped here both last year and the year previous were called upon by the proper officers to render their aid in putting a stop to these depredations and attacks; but this they declined doing. Calls, therefore, had to be made upon the militia of other counties to volunteer in the defense of those settlements. In every instance these requirements met with a prompt response. In the busiest season of the year our citizens left their counting rooms, stores, workshops and fields, and marched to the relief of their fellow citizens. With rare patriotism all the operations of a campaign with its attendant expenses, which were very heavy, were entered upon and endured in the most cheerful manner. The energy and vigilance of the militia in guarding the exposed points had their effect upon the wily foe. They saw that they could not make attacks with any safety or prospect of success, and they withdrew. Some few depredations have recently been made, but they have been of an unimportant character, and in most instances have not been attended with success on the part of the red men. It is to be hoped that such measures have now been taken by the settlers in forting and in guarding their stock that a recurrence of those scenes will be prevented. Should the State have to bear the expenses of these campaigns, I would respectfully recommend that they be as equally distributed as possible by taxation.

"...A great many of the difficulties that have existed and do now exist with the Indians are directly traceable to the whites. Indians and their squaws have been shot down in mere wantonness; and their traditions teach them to retaliate on the first that comes within their power of a tribe or people from whom any of them have received injury and wrong. They have been deceived again and again by men who have robbed the Indians over whom they were appointed guardians, and the Government who appointed and paid them. They see the hunting grounds of their fathers wrested from them, and the game, which is their support, driven away; and they look upon it as wrongful spoliation, not understanding the march of events, but knowing that too often the white man's professions are as insincere as his actions are inhuman and dishonorable. And for these and other causes they are at war with the whites, in their terribly barbarous and butchering way; killing and mangling innocent men and women, running off stock and destroying property.

"...On the other hand, the growing interests of the age demand that the travel from the east to the west of this great continent, and through the heart of this mighty nation, should not be stopped every once in a while by savages, whether they be numbered by the hundred or thousand. To follow the Indians off the main road, and over the thousands of square miles traversed by their roving bands, would be an impractical undertaking. A village here and there might be destroyed, or a few hundred Indians with their squaws and children might be killed, but at what a cost in expended means, while the depredations on the line of travel would be undiminished?"

Dedication West Jordan Church
From the Deseret News of August 14, 1867

"On Sunday morning President Brigham Young with Elders John Taylor, Wilford Woodruff, George A. Smith and George Q. Cannon, of the Twelve, Bishops E. Hunter and John Sharp, Elders H. S. Eldredge, Joseph F. Smith, E. Stevenson and others, traveled to West Jordan Ward to attend the dedication of the new Meeting House there.

"...After meeting, the carriages being ready, the President and company bade goodbye to Bishop Gardner and the Saints there, and returned to the city, by the road on the west side of the river; a mounted escort accompanying for several miles. An interesting story is attached to this little rock church. In 1859 Archibald Gardner was ordained bishop of West Jordan Ward, then numbering about 600 members, and it was he who planned the sturdy building. After many difficulties because of crude tools, the cornerstone was laid May 15th, 1861. Many men worked for nothing; others were paid with produce. Red sandstone for the walls was hauled by ox, horse and mule teams from a quarry near the Oquirrh Range, and the granite trim came from Little Cottonwood Canyon. When the three-foot-thick walls had been erected and the floor laid, no more funds were available, so work came to a standstill.

"Finally, three military men-Charles D. Haun, Samuel Bateman and William Turner-came to the rescue. They planned a military ball to obtain the needed funds. All military men in the Valley were invited as well as Brigham Young, the Apostles and other Church officials. The affair was a great success, the army officers bringing along an army canvas to cover the little church while the grand ball went on below. At a dollar a ticket, enough money was raised to finish the building. On the day of the dedication, President Young found that the grateful Saints had erected nearby a small house where he and his officers could rest during the celebration."

The Deseret News Becomes a Daily Paper
In September a crisis occurred in the Deseret News printing plant which delayed the printing of their weekly and semi-weekly newspapers. The crisis was explained in their issue of October 9, 1867:

"The News through the want of paper, was compelled to suspend the regular issues of its Semi's of September 28 and October 1 and its Weekly of October 2; and that too without, at that time, being able to inform its readers whether such suspension would be necessary, as from report, a portion of its paper was daily expected.

"...The arrival of General H. B. Clawson yesterday, as noted elsewhere, enables us to give the following information: All the paper, instead of two-thirds as first reported, that he had purchased for the News was burned by Indians in the forepart of August, at the time they ran a freight train off from the track and destroyed its contents in the neighborhood of Plum Creek. It will be readily understood that this unforeseen destruction not only frustrated the well laid plans for a plenty of paper in good time, but necessitated the heavy additional expense of duplicating so large a purchase, and the prolonging of the time of the arrival of the paper beyond the limit of the supply on hand or procurable here at any price, which of course compelled the suspension already mentioned.

"...Gen. Clawson informs us that our supply of paper will probably reach here in about thirty days, and until it arrives every possible effort will be made to issue the News regularly; though, until then, we may be, as we have been, obliged to again suspend for a week or so." In a little over a month, however, conditions had improved to the point where George Q. Cannon was able to write:

"Prospectus of the Deseret Evening News - In the course of a few days the undersigned proposes to commence the publication of a Daily Paper, under the above title. We are satisfied that the issue of such a paper at the present time is necessary to meet the wants of our subscribers. The Deseret News is the Pioneer Paper of the whole Rocky Mountain country. It should be a Daily Paper. Our intention is to have it contain four pages, the pages to be of the size of the Weekly Deseret News.

"The subscribers may rest assured that the Editor will spare no pains in filling its columns with all the current subjects of interest, and he will use freedom in expressing his views respecting them. He wishes each subscriber to get more than the price his subscription is worth in good, solid, reliable information. He will have for his aim the promotion of the welfare and various interests of the people of this Territory. It will be his province to advocate and defend their rights - social, political and religious; to make the paper the fearless exponent of the truth, and the liberal advocate of every plan that has for its object the elevation and true development of the people.

"The latest Telegraphic Dispatches and current local items will appear daily in its columns. It will also contain interesting correspondence from all parts of this Territory, from the United States and foreign countries. Combined, as it will be, with a Semi-weekly and Weekly paper, which are widely circulated, and the circulation of which we hope to still largely increase, it will be found an excellent advertising medium, which we presume businessmen will readily perceive."

Subscription, one year - $10.00
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Cove Fort
Cove Fort, Millard Co., Utah, is located on Cove Creek near the boundary line between Millard and Beaver counties, 35 miles southwest of Fillmore and 25 miles north of Beaver. It stands on the south slope of a lofty ridge, 5,950 feet above sea level, and is built of volcanic rock laid up in lime mortar. The walls are 18 feet high and four feet thick at the base, narrowing to two feet at the top. On the east and west sides are gates, that on the east being framed in a good, substantial arch, that on the west being a smaller gate. The fort is 100 feet square and contains 12 rooms, six on the north and six on the south side. In building the fort, 2,250 perch of rock and 84,342 feet of lumber were used. The cost of construction was about $25,000.

The site of Cove Fort was well known to the early pioneers of Utah as a favorite camping place for travelers, but no attempt was made to effect improvements there until 1860, when Charles Willden and his son, Elliot came to the location with a view of making homes. The following year Charles Willden brought his family there, and in the month of May of that year there were two houses, one dugout and a corral erected for the accommodation of three families, including five men, who had also sown nine acres of grain. The place was known thereafter as Willden's Fort and President Brigham Young and parties, as well as other travelers, found it a convenient resting place when traveling between Salt Lake City and southern Utah. In 1867 the Church bought the property and Ira N. Hinckley was called by Pres. Young to erect a fort there as protection against Indians and also in the interest of the mail route and general travel. A telegraph station was also opened. Bro. Hinckley had charge of the fort until 1877, when he was called to preside over the Millard Stake of Zion, after which his sons took charge, and as late as 1980 Cove Fort, although private property, was still used as a house of entertainment for travelers but occupied by only one family.

The Muddy Mission
On the 8th of October, 1867, during the first conference that convened in the great Tabernacle, 163 missionaries were called to go with their families to strengthen the settlements of southern Utah. This was the origin of the famous Muddy Mission.

Several new settlements were formed in what is now southeastern Nevada, among them St. Joseph, St. Thomas and Overton. But because of the excessive heat as well as the heavy taxes imposed upon them by the Nevadans, the settlements were eventually abandoned. The settlers had supposed themselves inside the Utah line, "but we knew where we were as soon as the tax collector came around," said one of them. Panaca, Lincoln County, Nevada, was rounded about the same time as the other places named, and is still a Mormon settlement. It is situated in Meadow Valley, twelve miles southeast of Pioche, ninety miles from St. George, Utah, and one hundred and ten miles from Milford. There are several other small Mormon settlements in that part of Nevada.

The Salt Lake Tabernacle Completed
In October 1867 the Salt Lake Tabernacle, now one of the noted buildings of the world, was completed so far as to permit the semi-annual conference of the Latter-day Saints to be held there. The Tabernacle had been in course of construction since July 1863. Like its neighbor, the Temple, it was designed in a general way by Brigham Young, but under him, having charge of the work, were professional architects and builders.

The Tabernacle has a vast elliptical dome, resting upon forty-four buttresses of solid masonry. Between these buttresses, which are of red sandstone, are twenty large doors, all opening outward and affording speedy egress. The building is two hundred and fifty feet long by one hundred and fifty feet wide, the immense roof, the concave ceiling of which is sixty-eight feet from the floor, being arched without a pillar. The full height of the structure is eighty feet. The seating capacity is about eight thousand, but ten thousand people can crowd into the building. The acoustics of the Tabernacle are a marvel. A pin dropped at one end of the hall can be heard distinctly at the other end, over two hundred feet away. The Tabernacle Organ, when built, was one of the largest pipe organs in America, and is still one of the great pipe organs of the world. It was designed and built by Joseph H. Ridges, a Utah pioneer, and was made entirely of native lumber. It has since been improved in its internal construction by the Kimball Company of Chicago; rebuilt and enlarged by Donald Harrison of the Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company.

Source: Our Pioneer Heritage © Carter, Kate B., ed. 20 vols. Salt Lake City: International Society, Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1958-1977. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. Documents and images are exerpted by permission from the LDS Family History Suite CDROM from Ancestry.