Heritage Gateways

Official Sesquicentennial K-12 Education Project
sponsored by the Utah State Board of Education, the BYU-Public School Partnership and the Utah Education Network


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Cooking: Pioneer Ways of Preparing and Cooking Meat

Pork. When that well-fed and properly taken care of pig was slaughtered near Thanksgiving time, the whole family became busy and interested in preparing the meat for the many different kinds of menus. The kidney fat and fat sides were cut and rendered for lard; care was taken not to over brown the cracklings, because they were made into a tasty dish by adding liver which was ground; the boiled heart, also ground, diced apples, seasoning pepper and onion to taste. It was called Finker, and was served warm with vegetables as a side dish.

The head, after being quartered, was soaked in mild salt water in order to draw out all the blood; the desirable parts were removed then cooked in a large kettle for hours until the bones could be easily removed. The remaining parts were cut in small pieces, this was seasoned with vinegar, brown sugar, salt, pepper, cloves, and bay leaf and cooked together for one half hour then put into a pan or oblong mold, covered with a cloth, and a weight of old fashioned flat irons or a clean rock was used on top. It was then stored in a cool place to set. For weeks we enjoyed this good headon our bread and butter. It made tasty sandwiches for school lunches.

The feet were skinned and cooked with beans, cabbage, or sauerkraut. Some people picked the feet. Now, the task of much of the lean meat. It was cut and ground for sausage. The mother would mix and season a large panful, part of which was stuffed into the clean, white skins of the intestines, with a 2 or 3 inch horn inserted at the top to make it easy to get the sausage started down the canal. Some of these sausages were smoked with the hams and shoulders and at the same time side strips of bacon. The remaining part was kept to fry as country sausage. Some was also left loose to mold and fry as freckadelles.

Fortunate was the person who could build a smoke house (4 or 5 ft. square and not very high) and had learned the art of preserving meat. They did this for all those around them; sometimes people came for miles and they would leave part of the meat as pay for having the rest smoked. In the fall when they killed a pig, it was cut into hams, shoulders, bacon, etc., and allowed to get thoroughly cold. Then warm salt was rubbed into the meat until no moisture came out. Sometimes a little sugar was added, but that was harder to get. This meat stood a few days and if any moisture or blood came out, it was evident that more salt was needed and more was rubbed in. It stood for several days before testing again. Around the bones there would be little holes or depressions that might spoil, so a very tiny bit of salt petre was pushed in here. Then this was all laid on a clean table cloth in a cold place for several weeks. Now it was ready for the smoke housepiece was hung by cords from the ceiling, so smoke could get all around it. They used corn cobs for fuel and did not make a big fire or blaze but smothered it, so only smoke came up, and it lasted a long time. When the hams, etc., had been smoked three days, they knew they were ready for the winter.

Hams and Shoulder Pork were cured with a mixture of salt, brown sugar and a little saltpetre which was rubbed thoroughly into the meat and left for a few days until absorbed; then the application was repeated until it would absorb no more. They were then placed in clean flour sacks and wrapped in several layers of newspaper and buried in a wheat bin where they were kept a year or more. Some people buried them in air-slacked lime.

Brine Method: For each 100 pounds of pork a pickle of 10 pounds salt; 2 pounds brown sugar; 2 ounces saltpetre; 1 ounce red pepper and from 4 to 5 gallons water or just enough to cover meat. First rub the meat with common salt and lay it in a tub overnight. Heat the above ingredients, stirring frequently, remove all scum and allow to boil 10 minutes. Cool and pour over the meat. Take out the small pieces in two weeks. Allow hams and shoulders to remain in brine for six weeks.

Liver Pastiet. 1/2 lb. pig liver; 1/2 lb. bacon; 1 small onion (run eight times through meat grinder). 1 tbs. melted shortening; add 1 tbs. flour; 1/2 cup milk. Cook, then cool white sauce and add 1 egg, salt and pepper to taste. Mix altogether; put in a mold set in a pan of water and cook 1 hour in oven. Take from the water; put strips of bacon on top and leave in oven 15 to 20 minutes. Makes a good spread for sandwiches.

Pork Chops and Fried Apples. Season chops with salt and pepper and a little powdered sage; dip them into bread crumbs. Fry about 20 minutes or until they are done. Put them on a hot dish, pour off part of the gravy in another pan to make gravy to serve with them, if you choose. Then fry apples which you have sliced about two thirds of an inch thick, cutting them around the apple so that the core is in the center of each piece; then cut out the core. When they are browned on one side and partly cooked, turn them carefully with a pancake turner and finish cooking. Dish around the chops or on a separate dish.

Sausage and Fried Apples. 1 lb. sausage, or pan broil the required number of small sausages or cakes of sausage meat and as soon as the fat collects, as many halved, cored, and unpeeled apples as are required, first dipping them in flour to which a little sugar has been added.

Brown lightly until soft. Place on a hot serving dish with two small sausages on each half.

Yankee Fry Stew. Cut up bacon and fry crisp. Add two large potatoes, sliced and diced. Fry until light golden color, then add a slice of onion and 1 qt. water, salt and pepper. When cooked add dumplings made with one egg. Serve hot.

Scrapple is a most palatable dish. Take the head, heart and any lean scraps of pork and boil them until the meat drops easily from the bones. Remove the fat, gristle, bones, then chop fine. Set the liquor in which the meat was boiled to cool, take the cake of fat from the surface and return to the fire. When it boils up put in the chopped meat and season well with salt and pepper. Let it boil again, then thicken with corn meal as you would in making ordinary corn meal mush, by letting it slip through the fingers slowly to prevent lumps. Cook an hour, stirring constantly at first, afterwards putting on the back of the stove in a position to boil gently. When done pour into a long pan, not too deep, and mold. Cut into slices when cold, and fry brown. This makes a cheap, delicious breakfast dish.

Baked Cured Ham. Scrub the ham with a stiff brush. Cook in simmering water about 30 minutes for a medium sized ham. Remove the skin and cover with one of the following mixtures: (1) Brown sugar; (2) brown sugar and cracker crumbs; (3) brown sugar, bread crumbs and mustard; or pour on the ham about 2 cups fruit juice, cider or sweet pickle juice and baste frequently. Stick with cloves about 1/2 inch apart. Bake an hour.

Haunch of Venison Roasted. Wipe the venison well with a towel dipped in warm water. Leave the hoof and four or five inches of skin or hair on the lower part of the leg. Lard the haunch thickly with salt pork. If you have no lard handy, make slight incisions with a small knife, about an inch and a half apart, and put a small piece of salt pork in each incision. It may be roasted without larding, but as the meat is naturally dry, it is certainly a great improvement. Fold a piece of coarse muslin into three of four thicknesses, wide enough to cover the hoof and hair. Dip this in cold water, and bind it around the hoof, tie, envelop this in several thicknesses of buttered letter paper, and tie tightly. This is to prevent the hair and hoof from changing color. If your haunch is large, the cloth may require a second or third wetting. Now place it before a brisk fire, or in a very hot oven, and roast fifteen minutes to every pound, basting every ten minutes at first with melted butter, and afterwards with its own drippings. When half done, season with a teaspoonful of salt and a few dashes of black pepper. When done, unwrap the hoof, and dish. Add two tablespoons of flour to the fat in the pan in which it was roasted, stir until brown, add one pint of good stock, stir constantly until it boils; take from the fire, add one teaspoonful of currant jelly and one of sherry, season with salt and pepper to taste. Serve in a boat; currant jelly and water should accompany this dish.

Jerky, was made of lean beef or venison cut in long strips and dipped in boiling brine for a few seconds, then hung up to dry, usually on the rafters of the kitchen.

Beef with Dumplings. Two pounds of lean beef from the under side of the round, or a shoulder piece. Cut it into pieces about an inch square; dredge thickly with flour. Put two tablespoonsful of drippings or butter into a frying pan, place it on a good fire; as soon as it is very hot, throw in the meat and shake or stir until all is nicely browned. Now skim it out and put it in a saucepan. Add one tablespoonful of flour to the drippings or butter remaining in the frying pan, mix, then add one quart of boiling water; stir over the fire until it boils, then strain it over the meat; add one small onion and a sprig of parsley. Cover the saucepan and let it simmer for two hours. When the meat is half done, add a teaspoonful of salt and three dashes of black pepper; sift one pint of flour, add to it a heaping teaspoonful of baking powder and sift again; add a quarter of a teaspoonful of salt and just enough milk (a little over a gill) to make a soft dough. Do not work it much. Dip the dough by small spoonsful, and place them over the top of the meat, cover quickly and let simmer ten minutes. Do not uncover the saucepan while the dumplings are cooking or they will fall immediately. After you add the dumplings, the stew will scorch easily; therefore move the kettle to a moderate part of the fire. Serve as soon as the dumplings are done.

French Stew. Grease the bottom of an iron pot, and place in it 3 or 4 lbs. of beef. Be very careful that it does not burn turn until it is nicely browned. Add a few slices of carrots, one or two sliced onions and a cup of hot water; keep covered and stew slowly until the vegetables are done. Add pepper and salt. If you wish more gravy, add hot water and thicken with flour. Serve on a dish with vegetables.

Pot Roast. Take a piece of fresh beef, about 5 or 6 pounds. It must not be too fat. Wash and put in a pot with barely sufficient water to cover it. Set over a slow fire, and after it has stewed an hour, salt and pepper it. Then stew it slowly until it is tender, adding a little onion. Do not replenish the water at the last, but let it nearly all boil away. When tender all through take the meat from the pot and pour the gravy in a bowl. Put a large lump of butter in the bottom of the pot, then dredge the piece of meat with flour and return it to the pot to brown, turning it often to prevent burning. Take the gravy that has been poured from the meat and stir in a large tablespoonful of flour, add a little water; let it boil for ten minutes and pour into a gravy dish. Serve both hot, the meat on a platter.

Hash. Take any pieces left from cold roasts, steaks, or stews; chop very fine. To every quart of this meat allow: 1 onion; 1 tablespoonful of butter; 2 hard-boiled eggs; 1/2 pint of hot water; salt and pepper to taste. Chop the onion and hard eggs very fine, then put them with the meat into a stewing pan; add the butter, salt and pepper. Stew and stir over a very slow fire for fifteen minutes.

Beefsteak Pie. 11/2 lbs. steak; 1/2 cup flour; 2 or 3 carrots; 2 or 3 small potatoes; 1 large or 6 small onions (green). Pound flour into both sides of the steak and cut in small pieces. Brown in drippings in skillet, cover with water and simmer until steak is tender. Add carrots, cut in rounds, dice potatoes and slice onions. Add more water and cook until vegetables are tender. Put a handleless cup upside down in a 2 qt. casserole and pour stew around it. Top with rather thick biscuit dough. Bake for 20 minutes.

Lamb and Potato Pie. 1 1/4 cups minced, cooked lamb; 1/2 cup gravy; 11/3 cups fluffy, mashed potatoes; 1 egg yolk. Combine the meat and gravy in a shallow greased baking dish. Heap with the potatoes. Brush with the egg yolk which should be slightly beaten and bake in a hot oven for about 20 minutes or until browned.

Baked Shoulder Lamb Chops. Dust the lamb chops with flour, salt and pepper and brown quickly on both sides in savory drippings. Place in baking dish. Scrape and slice carrots, peel several small onions and arrange the vegetables around the lamb chops. Sprinkle with salt and pepper; add one cup of water, cover and bake in the oven one hour.

Yorkshire Pudding. Two or three eggs; 6 tbs. flour (heaping) 1 pt. milk; pinch of salt. Beat the eggs; add the flour and salt; stir in the milk to form a smooth, very thin batter; pour the batter into the side of a pan of bubbling hot beef drippings from which a roast has been removed. Cook 20 minutes in hot oven (about 375) Do not open the oven door while pudding is baking. When cooked, the pudding has risen to the top of the pan and has crusty edges. It usually falls when removed from the oven. Cut into squares which may then be served with the meat or with butter and sugar or jelly as a dessert.

Mormon Gravy. 3 or 4 tbs. fat; 3 cups cool liquid; 2 tbs. flour; salt and pepper. Remove meat from the pan, leaving ample amount of fat. Add flour, brown slightly if desired. Remove from fire, add liquid, stirring rapidly to prevent lumping. When all blended return to heat, bring to a boil and season. Amounts can be varied according to the richness desired and the amount needed. Gravy made from milk was preferable but oft times the pioneers used the water in which vegetables were boiled or the extract from the soluable parts of meat, fish or poultry. It was an important part of the pioneers' diet, as one man speaking of the early days, said: "Mother always made plenty of gravy."

The pioneers often made pies from small pieces of left over meat or poultry cooked together with carrots, potatoes, turnips, onions and seasoned with salt and pepper. Mormon gravy poured very hot over the pies made an appetizing and economical meal. Poultry

Roast Turkey. Select a young turkey; remove all the feathers carefully, singe it over a burning newspaper on the top of the stove; then "draw" it nicely, being very careful not to break any of the internal organs; remove the crop carefully; cut off the head and tie the neck close to the body in drawing the skin over it. Now rinse the inside of the turkey out with several waters, and in the next to the last, mix a teaspoonful of baking soda; oftentimes the inside of a fowl is very sour, especially if it is not freshly killed. Soda, being cleansing, acts as a corrective and destroys that unpleasant taste which we frequently experience in the dressing when fowls have been killed for some time. Now, after washing, wipe the turkey dry, inside and out, with a dean cloth, rub the inside with salt, then stuff the breast and body with "dressing for fowls." Sew up the turkey with a strong thread, tie the legs and wings to the body, rub it over with a little soft butter, sprinkle over some salt and pepper, dredge with a little flour; place it in a dripping pan, pour in a cup of boiling water and set in the oven. Baste the turkey often, turning it around occasionally so that every part will be uniformly baked. When pierced with a fork and the liquid runs out perfectly clear, the bird is done. If any part is likely to scorch, pin over it a piece of buttered white paper. A fifteen pound turkey requires between three and four hours to bake.

Dressing. For an eight or ten pound turkey, cut the brown crust from slices or pieces of stale bread until you have as much as the inside of a pound loaf; put it into a suitable dish and pour tepid water (not warm for that makes it heavy) over it; let it stand for one minute, as it soaks very quickly. Now take up a handful at a time and squeeze it hard and dry with both hands, placing it, as you go along, in another dish; this process makes it very light. When all is pressed dry, toss it all up lightly through your fingers; now add pepper, salt, about a teaspoonful, also a teaspoonful of powdered summer savory, the same amount of sage, or the green herb minced fine; add half a cup of melted butter, and a beaten egg or not. Work thoroughly together, and it is ready for dressing either fowls, fish or meats. A little chopped sausage in turkey dressing is considered by some an improvement, when well incorporated with the other ingredients. For geese and ducks the stuffing may be the same as for turkey, with the addition of a few slices of onion chopped fine.

Gravy. When you put the turkey in to roast, put the neck, heart liver and gizzard into a stewpan with a pint of water; boil until they become quite tender; take them out of the water, chop the heart and gizzard, mash the liver and throw away the neck; return the chopped heart, gizzard and liver to the liquor in which they were stewed; set it to one side, and when the turkey is done it should be added to the gravy that dripped from the turkey, having first skimmed off the fat from the surface of the dripping pan; set it all over the fire, boil three minutes and thicken with flour. It will not need brown flour to color the gravy.

Stewed Chicken with Dumplings. Cut fowl into pieces for serving, transfer to kettle with water enough to cover and simmer until tender. Remove chicken and keep hot; blend two or three tbs. of flour with a little cold water, add some of the chicken broth, add the remaining soup and stir until thickened. Add salt as needed, drop small spoonsful of dumpling batter and cook for 15 minutes. The cover must not be removed while the dumplings are cooking for if the steam escapes they will not be light.

Dumplings. 3/4 cups sifted flour; 21/2 tsp. baking powder; 1/2 tsp. salt;1 egg; 1/3 cup milk. Sift the flour, baking powder and salt together. Beat the egg, add the milk and mix with dry ingredients.

Baked Chicken with Green Peas. Melt a piece of butter and a little sugar in a pan. Add the washed green peas, a little salt and cook slowly. When tender dust with a little flour and some beef broth, a little sweet cream, green parsley and simmer. Cook the cream before adding to the peas to keep it from curdling. If chickens are small, cut in quarters, bigger ones into small pieces. Salt and let drain for an hour and dry. Roll in flour, dip in beaten eggs then in crumbs and fry in lard. Put the peas in center of platter and place chicken around them.

Sage Hen. Prepare as for tame chicken. Roll in flour or bake in bake kettle. Put slices of salt pork over the chicken after it has been salted and peppered well. Cover and cook slowly. Uncover to brown when nearly done.

Pheasant with Sweet Sauerkraut. Melt in a pan some lard or other fat. Add 1 tbs. sugar and let it get a golden brown. Add sauerkraut which has been standing in hot water. Cut a small onion fine and add to the kraut. Add caraway seed, not too much or it will get bitter. Cook until soft. Sprinkle lightly with flour, add a little vinegar, sour cream and hot melted fat. Simmer, but not brown. Stuff the pheasant and roast it on a spit. Place the bird on a platter and surround with kraut. Eggs

Fastened on many of the pioneer wagons crossing the plains to Utah was a small box which the father had made to serve as a chicken coop; so it was not long after their arrival that every home in the valley raised poultry and eggs were a valuable addition to the daily diet. Eggs were tested by putting them in cold water. If fresh it would sink to the bottom of the pan; if the egg floated around in the pan, but still remained under water it could be used for cooking or baking purposes, but if it floated on top it was spoiled.

Boiled Eggs. Place eggs gently in a small kettle being careful not to crack the shells. Pour boiling water over them and boil rapidly for three minutes for soft boiled, four minutes for medium, and about ten minutes for hard boiled eggs.

Poached Eggs. Fill a frying pan nearly full with water, bring to a boil, adding 1/2 tsp. of salt to each pint of water. Break the eggs one at a time into a saucer and carefully slide them into the water. Simmer them very slowly and two or three times dip a little hot water over the yolks to cook them. About seven minutes should be allowed to let them set. They should be removed with a perforated spoon for best results. Place them on buttered toast and pour a little melted butter over them if preferred.

Scrambled Eggs. A serving of one or two scrambled eggs should be allowed each person. Beat thoroughly and add one tbs. of milk for each egg, salted and peppered to taste. One tablespoon of butter melted in a small, heavy iron frying pan into which the egg mixture is poured and then placed over low heat. Scrape the sides of the pan as fast as the mixture begins to solidify with a tablespoon. Cook only until it becomes creamy; then serve plain or heap on hot toast. Ham, dried beef or crisp bacon add flavor to this appetizing dish.

Plain Omelet. 3 eggs; 1/3 tsp. salt; pepper to taste; 1/2 tsp. butter, 3 tbs. hot water. Break the eggs into a bowl, add the seasoning. After it has been thoroughly mixed turn into a heavy skillet in which butter has been melted. Cook over a low heat for 2 minutes, and then raise the cooked portion carefully with a fork so that the liquid portion comes in contact with the hot pan. When the omelet is brown on the bottom gently fold one half over the other half and serve at once. Cheese, ham, tomatoes or other ingredients may be added as desired.

Icing and Meringues. Beaten whites of eggs were used extensively in preparing frostings for cakes. Always a little lemon extract and sugar were added. One crust pies were often topped with meringue made of egg whites, flavoring and sugar. Utah's Fish

The years of 1855 proved to be very difficult for the Saints. Not only were they in dire need of food but the Indians suffered likewise and it was then that the fish in Utah Lake played such an important part in augmenting their meagre supplies. Peter Madsen, pioneer fisherman of Utah county, tells this story:

"I arrived in Salt Lake City on Oct. 4, 1854 and came to Provo the same year where I have since made by home. It was in the year 1855, as I remember, when the grasshoppers made their descent upon the small fields of the pioneers. The crops had been planted in the rich soil along Provo river and gave promise of a fair harvest, equal to the demands of the small population and the incoming emigrants who would be too late to plant crops during that summer. We felt that all would be well with us when lo, the grasshoppers came upon us, so thick that they very fairly darkened the sun. They destroyed most of the crops as they made their way to the shores of the lake, which they attempted to cross and were drowned by wagon loads and many of them were eaten by the fish. The great walls floated upon the shores of the lake.

"It was a little later that the people came to the lake. From Sevier to Salt Lake they came with wagons and barrels and salt, prepared to take fish home with them for food during the winter. Their crops were destroyed and they were weak from hunger. They brought with them two short pieces of seine, which I secured from them and joined to the end of a short seine I had knit during my first winter in Utah, therefore making a fairly good net. They all camped along the river near where it empties into the lake, and we made preparations to supply them with mullet and trout which were quite plentiful.

"Having been accustomed to fishing in Denmark when a boy I was prepared for this important duty of furnishing food for starving people, and I will always remember the scene along the river bank after the first days catch had been distributed. The campers were in little groups around the campfires where they were broiling fish on the hot coals and eating them with a relish that only those who have been through experiences of this kind can appreciate.

"The bishop of Provo sent men to help and all day and night the fishing went on. The Saints came and remained on the river until they had enough fish salted to last them during the winter, then they left for their homes to make room for others equally as needy. For weeks the work went on. Nobody ever asked who did the work or who received the fish. We were comparatively equal in those days and all we asked was enough to eat until we could raise crops to supply us with food."

To Fry or Broil Fish Properly. After the fish are well cleansed, lay them on a folded towel. When wiped dry, roll in wheat flour, rolled crackers, grated stale bread, or Indian meal, whichever may be preferred. Wheat flour will generally be liked. Have a thick frying pan or spider with plenty of sweet lard, salted tbs. of salt to each pound of lard fresh fish which have not been previously salted; let it become boiling hot then lay the fish in and let fry gently until one side is a delicate brown, then turn. When both are done take up carefully and serve quickly, or keep covered with a tin cover and set the dish where it will keep hot.

Baked Black Bass. Eight good onions chopped fine; half that quantity of bread crumbs; butter size of hens egg; plenty of pepper and salt; mix thoroughly with anchovy sauce until quite red. Stuff fish with this compound and pour the rest over it, previously sprinkling it with a little red pepper. Shad, pickerel, and trout are good the same way. Tomatoes can be used instead of anchovies, and are more economical. If using them take pork in place of butter and chop fine.

Boiled Bass. Put enough water in the pot for the fish to swim in easily. Add half a cup of vinegar, a tablespoonful of salt, and onion, a dozen black peppers, and a blade of mace. Sew up the fish in a piece of clean net, fitted to its shape. Heat slowly for the first half hour, then boil eight minutes at least, to the pound, quite fast. Unwrap, and pour over it a cup of drawn butter, based upon the liquor in which the fish was boiled, with the juice of half a lemon stirred into it. Garnish with sliced lemon.

Baked Salmon. Clean the fish, rinse it and wipe it dry; rub it well outside and in, with a mixture of pepper and salt, and fill it with a stuffing made with slices of bread, buttered freely and moistened with hot milk or water (add sage or thyme to the seasoning, if liked). Tie a thread around the fish so as to keep the stuffing in (take off the thread before serving) lay muffin-rings or a trivet in a dripping-pan; lay bits of butter over the fish; dredge the flour over, and put it on the rings; put a pint of hot water in the pan, to baste with; bake one hour, if a large fish, in a quick oven; baste frequently. When the fish is taken up, having cut a lemon in very thin slices, put them in the pan and let them fry a little; then dredge in a teaspoonful of wheat flour, add a small bit of butter; stir it about, and let it brown without burning, for a little while; then add half a tea-cup or more of boiling water, stir it smooth, put the slices of lemon into the gravy-boat and strain the gravy over. Serve with boiled potatoes. The lemon may be omitted if preferred, although generally it will be liked.

Boiled Salmon. 2 or 3 lbs salmon (in one piece), salt; 2 cups cream; 2 tbs. butter; 2 tsp. chopped parsley; 1/2 c. fish stock (water in which fish was cooked). Wash the fish thoroughly and place in a clean cheese cloth or piece of white linen. Fasten openings securely and put in a large kettle. Cover with cold water and add 1 tbs. salt. Cook slowly, allowing 15 minutes for each pound of fish. While the fish is cooking, combine the remaining ingredients in a double boiler; heat thoroughly, stirring constantly. Reduce heat and keep sauce warm until ready to use. Remove fish from kettle and place on heavy cloth to absorb the water, unwrap and place on a hot platter. Care should be taken not to break the fish. Pour the sauce over the fish, garnish with parsley and serve at once.

Broiled Salmon. Cut slices about an inch thick, and broil them over a gentle, bright fire of coals, for ten or twelve minutes When both sides are done, take them on to a hot dish; butter each slice well with sweet butter; strew over each a very little salt and pepper to taste and serve.

Fried Trout. They must, of course, be nicely cleaned and trimmed but do not cut off their heads. Dredge well with flour, and fry in a pan of boiling hot fat or oil; turn them from side to side till they are nicely browned. Drain off all fat before sending the dish to the table, garnish with a few sprigs of parsley and provide plain melted butter. If preferred, the trout can be larded with beaten eggs and dipped in bread crumbs. The frying will occupy from five to eight minutes, according to size. Very large trout can be cut in pieces.

Broiled Trout. Clean and split open, season with a little salt and cayenne; dip in whipped egg, dredge with flour and brandy, broil over a clear fire. Serve with sauce.


So long as there are homes to which men turn

At close of day;

So long as there are homes where children are,

Where women stay;

If love and loyalty and faith be found

Across those sills,

A stricken nation can recover from

Its gravest ills.

So long as there are homes where fires burn

And there is bread,

So long as there are homes where lamps are lit

And prayers are said;

Although people falter through the dark

And nations grope

With God himself back of these little homes

We have sure hope.

Grace Noll Crowell

Source: Our Pioneer Heritage © Carter, Kate B., ed. 20 vols. Salt Lake City: International Society, Daughters of Utah Pioneers, 1958-1977. All rights reserved. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. Documents and images are exerpted by permission from the LDS Family History Suite CDROM from Ancestry.